|photo NYPL Collection|
At the near-tip of Manhattan on the site where the Dutch West India Company built Fort Amsterdam to defend themselves against Native Americans sits one of the most monumental of New York structures.
The greatest source of revenue for the United States Government before the creation of income tax in 1916 was the collection of customs duties. As the 19th century came to a close there was a need for a substantial new U. S. Customs house in New York City.
In 1899 once-elegant row houses, since converted to office space, lined the site of the old Fort Amsterdam. The Federal Government took ownership and the Department of the Treasury sponsored a competition for the design of the new Customs House -- and sparked a controversy that would last for years. The Customs House was the first major competition under the 1893 Tarnsey Act that allowed architects to compete for the design of civic structures. The competition ended in a tie between Cass Gilbert, from Minnesota, and the New York City firm of Carrere & Hastings.
While the jury requested the finalists to submit further developments to their designs, Carrere & Hastings suggested to Gilbert that they join forces in the project and that they request the jury be enlarged. Gilbert, who wanted this plum commission for himself, refused on both counts. After resubmitted designs, much deliberation and Gilbert's paying his lawyer $5000 in legal fees, Cass Gilbert won the commission.
Coming amid the City Beautiful movement which stressed monumental, decorative buildings, Gilbert's design was exactly that. Seven stories of Beaux Arts-style gray Maine granite covered three city blocks and contained 450,000 square feet of space. Drawing his inspiration from the Paris Opera, his building would be as lavish as it would be massive.
Critical to the architecture was the sculpture. Four colossal seated figures representing Africa, Asia, America and Europe would decorate the front facade. So important were these allegories that each had a separate contract, the commissions all being awarded to Daniel Chester French. Above the 12 three -story high columns are statues representing the sea powers of the world. In dramatic contrast to the gray granite facade, the sculptures were executed in brilliant white Tennessee marble.
Masterpieces of symbolism, French's groupings deserve careful study:
America rests her foot on Quetzelcoatl, the feathered South American serpent god. A Native American watches over her shoulder. Corn, wheat, cacti, a buffalo skull and a broken Native American pot symbolize the United States. Next to her Labor rolls the wheel of progress. Along the sides of America's throne are Mayan glyphs.
The statue of Asia reflects the political views of the period. Her feet rest on a stool supported by human skulls, symbolic of the many lives lost in Asian slavery. In one hand she holds a poppy while a statue of Buddha sits in her lap. Behind her a cross is emerging, denoting the rise of Christianity and missionary work at the time. Three miserable figures, one curled on the ground with his face in the dirt and one with his hands tied behind his back represent, in French's words, "the hordes of India, and the hopelessness of the life of so many of the inhabitants." A large tiger wraps behind the throne.
Europe sits on a throne decorated with fragments of the frieze of the Parthenon, her left hand grips the bow of a ship with a lion's head, representing Europe's many conquests during the Age of Discovery. Her right hand, in a fist, rests on a globe -- a symbol of her many colonial take-overs. Behind her a shrouded figured depicting ancient history contemplates a human skull.
|The cost to erect the monumental structure would equal more than $90 million today) illustration from Harper's Bazaar, January 11, 1902 (copyright expired)|
The interior of the Custom House was a lavish as the exterior. The rotunda remains one of the largest public spaces in New York. Over the ornate room a 140-ton skylight was engineered with no visible means of support.
In a last minute rescue, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan sponsored a bill appropriating nearly $30 million for the restoration of the old Customs House. Because of the variety and quality of the artwork, preservation efforts involved a series of subcontracts. Painstaking research was done on every piece after which individual curators recommended methods, tested those methods, and then conserved the art under the watchful eye of experts. The Marsh murals, for instance, were unable to be cleaned; the sand-rich plaster on which they were painted being far too delicate.
Today the United State Customs House is the home of the George Gustav Heye Center -- National Museum of the American Indian, a branch of the Smithsonian Institution.